iPhone 7/7+ Raw Capabilities

iphone6-sample-1

Would an iPhone 7 raw capture have produced more shadow detail, more highlight detail, and less sky noise than this iPhone 6 standard camera shot?

While the internet is flooded with negative articles about the iPhone 7 series and how little new they have to offer (a great way to get clicks, whether you have anything meaningful to say or not), there are, in fact, a number of very interesting new features, especially in the 7+. I will wait to discuss the dual cameras and what they offer for phone photography, as well as the wide gamut P3 colorspace of the new iPhones, until I actually have one in hand (the prudent way to write about any product), but in the meantime I can’t resist commenting on another feature of the new phones, or for that matter other recent iPhones, running iOS 10.

That would be the ability to shoot raw images. Not that the native camera app which Apple supplies (and which accounts for the vast majority of images shot with iPhones) offers such an option; but it is available for third parties to use. Adobe is making a splash by supporting this capability in their Lightroom camera function. But first, lets step back, and think about what raw really means.

Raw means nothing, unless there is more than 8 bits (256 levels) of meaningful data available. So the value of raw functions of any type with iPhones will depend on how much meaningful raw data is actually captured, and made available for use, from these phones.

Experience with DSLRs and mirrorless cameras has shown that ten bits of data is good, and twelve bits is better. But where does such “extra” data show up, since screens often don’t display more then 256 levels per color channel anyways?

It shows up mostly when you make significant adjustments to the file, to open the shadows, or enhance the highlights. And the peculiar way that bit depth in files works, extra bits allows us to keep much more highlight detail, while leaving more bits for further down the range. However, unless the dynamic range captures meaningful data, not noise, in the deep shadows, then the value of that extra depth is questionable.

So what we will be looking for from raw capture as we test the iPhone 7 and 7+ (and iOS 10 with phones from the 6s forward) is the ability to produce more highlight and shadow detail, and the ability to make big density shifts in editing software, without causing “thinness”, which shows up as posterization in one or more zones after the edit has been made.

How will the iPhone 7 series perform in raw mode? These are tiny sensors, which are therefore prone to much more noise, especially in the shadows, and in dim lighting. Perhaps the 7+ with its dual camera functionality will be able to reduce that noise a bit, but  don’t expect  raw capture from the iPhone 7 and 7+ to respond like a recent generation DSLRs when editing. But we can hope that this will provide at least incremental improvement on previous iPhone images.

The real question is whether the improvements by shooting with Lightroom raw, over the standard iPhone camera, is large enough and frequent enough for us to use the Lightroom camera as our default, go-to choice for shooting.

Copyright C. David Tobie

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Apple Power Supply Cable Wear

IMG_6544I’ve seen a fair amount written about the problems with Apple Powerbook power supply cables wearing at the end near the power supply. I’ve seen various clip-ons or do-it-yourself gummy solutions that claim to reduce this issue.

Everyone’s assumption seems to be that there is not sufficient cable stress relief, meaning the cable bends tightly at one spot, rather than making a smoother bend over a longer distance, thus relieving the stress at the power brick.

Apple’s stress relief is, indeed, minimal. And yes, the methods suggested do extend that cable relief. But that only solves the problem if the assumed cause of cable failure is correct.

Observing what is actually happening with these cables, they are very supple; Apple would not want to ship a stiff cable, which cannot be wound-up conveniently. And this suppleness means the cable does not fatigue much from being tightly bent; this would be one reason why Apple does not supply an extended stress reliever.

Instead, the motion that I see causing wear in the cable has to do with the sheath not being bonded to the interior components, and a rotation occurring within the cable sheath. This twisting motion eventually stresses the cable sheathing, the internal wires, or both, causing cable failure.

Most stress relief designs do not address this issue. Anyone who has spent time on sailboats knows about the problems that side-winding a rope produces; wind it to the wrong side, and not only will you kink the rope, you may actually open up the strands, significantly weakening it. The ideal solution to avoid kinking, is to straight-wind a line or cable from the end, not the side, both winding and unwinding.

Applying this to power supply cables, the cause of twisting at the end, causing eventual failure of the cable is the method we use to wind and unwind the cable. If we wind it up overhand, but then, instead of reversing that process to unwind it, pull the cable over the end of the power supply, we are building a series of kinks into the cable, and increasing this twisting force every time we store, then release the cable.

Apple has designed their cable storage solution with end plates that force the user to straight-wind the cable both on and off the arms. However many of us do not open up these clips and store the cable on them, but instead wind the cable around the body of the power supply, or simply wind it up on it’s own.

This has two problematic results. First, it straight-winds the cable onto the power supply, or our fingers, but in most cases we pull the cable off the end of the supply, or sideways out of its self-coil to release, it, thus side-winding kinks into the cable in the process. The second problem is that the Apple winding arms are positioned to contain the short stress reliever, and eliminate force against it, or repeated motion of the cable at that point during storage and travel. Any other cable storage method will leave the cable exposed to force and repeated bending at this point, shortening its overall life expectancy.

So while a conveniently supply cable is prone to wear, the best solution to Apple power supply cable wear appears to be storing the cable in the manner Apple planned, plus being aware of the dangers of twisting the cord, and straightening out any kinks that may form, to avoid ongoing twisting of the cable at the point of attachment.

C. David Tobie

 

The Retina Display iMac for Photographers, Part ll

Visual color assessment of the Retina iMac’s display shows it to be close to the target values, closer than many off-the-shelf displays. Its color and densities, out of the box, would be better for general consumer use than almost any other solution, short of top-end dedicated graphics displays.

That’s great news for most users, but not quite enough for those doing serious color work, including photography, on the iMac. The display we tested was just a bit denser in the midtones than would be ideal, and the colors are a bit punchy.

More obvious than either of those issues was the lack of neutrality; in fact, on an uncalibrated display the grays were sufficiently off-neutral to make it difficult to judge the other.

Analyzing the iMac display with a Datacolor Spyder profile provided some understanding of these visual issues. So let’s dig into the details this tool can provide us about the display.

First is the Gamma Curves. Lets start with a chart of the red channel, showing the target of gamma 2.2 in red, and the native curve in black.

RedUncal

See how it’s a bit below the 2.2 line? That would begin to account for part of the midtones being too dark. Next, lets look at the calibrated results. The black line lying right over the red target line is the corrected result.

RedCalandUncal

The green channel shows a similar story here is the green channel, with the uncalibrated line below the target, and the calibrated line nearly on top of it.GreenCalandUncal

The blue channel looks rather different. Here the uncalibrated curve lies above the target through much of the curve, but below it in the highlights. Corrected blue curve left out for clarity.

BlueUncal

It’s the combination of small variations in channel curves that add up to a slight inaccuracy in the overall density, as well as the gray balance.

Next let’s look at the gamut of the display. Apple has been standardizing on an sRGB gamut, for the simplicity of having sRGB web images, as well as Rec 709 video, look more or less correct on screen.

In the image below you can see that the red triangle representing the display gamut is a good match for the green triangle representing sRGB. In Apple’s laptops and mobile devices, the gamut is very close to sRGB, but a hair inside, generally rating 97 to 99% of sRGB. However, the display gamut is outside of sRGB, especially at the red and green points.

iMacGamut

This would account for colors on the display being just a bit punchy, a direction that would please general users, but would bother advanced photographers, especially in the skintones. Correcting this oversaturation in an editing app on the iMac would then result in desaturated colors in color-accurate prints. This is where a user-generated correction profile for the display is key to success!

Other functions of the display rated well, with the exception of the uniformity issue that is the weak point of most white LED lit displays. Color accuracy on all colors except for the Cyan patch (which is outside the sRGB gamut) were in the range of 1 delta-E, or barely discernible. Contrast measured at over 1000 to 1. Other factors can be seen in the summary chart below.

iMacSummary

As can be seen from this table, as long as you don’t depend on the brightness in the corners of the screen, the Retina iMac display is a very good display.

The brightness of the iMac display would be the last issue to consider. This screen is capable of producing 500 candelas per meter squared. That would be great for use on a tradeshow floor, but in a normal, dim editing environment it is critical to dim this display to an appropriate level.

We calibrated it to 120 candelas, as we do with our other displays, and it worked very well at that level. If you have other custom settings you require, such as calibrating to 5800K instead of 6500K, etc, then custom calibration is a necessity.

Pairing the Retina iMac with a wide gamut graphics screen as a second display offers the best of both worlds, including the ability to view nearly the entire image from most DSLR cameras on one screen at 100% scale, making dust busting and sharpening a joy. Calibrating both those displays to make the match between them as close as possible can provide a great image editing experience, saving time and providing a good screen to print match.

Thanks to Datacolor for the tools used to analyze the Retina iMac display!

C. David Tobie

The Retina Display iMac for Photographers, Part l

In a few short years the iMac has moved from being a rather slow, utilitarian looking machine that could not be recommended for photo or video work, to a big, beautiful device with wide viewing angles, high resolution displays, and full external display support. Apple’s new 27-inch iMac with Retina Display takes this evolution a big step further.

Until recently the question has been: is the iMac an acceptable image-editing machine for basic users, who can’t justify more expensive equipment? And once IPS (In-Plane Switching) screens with wider viewing angles, wider ranging dimmer controls, and better external display support were added, the answer was finally “Yes”.

With last year’s much anticipated announcement of the new smaller form factor MacPro, high-end 3D animation and video work quickly moved to that machine. But photographers, even those who do some time lapse or video work, were more reluctant to purchase the new MacPro. It had some impressive specs, but it was pricey as well, and the addition of one or more 4K displays, which are a main reason for owning such a computer, added thousands more to the cost of configuring one. The addition of Thunderbolt 2 storage arrays for holding the images and video in question resulted in a total price that was only justifiable for full time video or timelapse professionals, who could earn back the investment in a relatively short time.

Fast forward to the recent release of the new Retina iMac, and the balance becomes clearer. The Retina iMac sports the world’s highest resolution screen, called 5K, but displaying 67% more pixels than a 4K screen. This means it is capable of showing more of your image pixels at one time than any other display, and pixel count is a major factor for photographers, in sharpening, dust busting, and when available, for every other step in the selection and editing process. The Retina iMac also offers the world’s fastest quad-core PC processor, meaning that for anything other than massive parallel processing it actually works faster than the MacPro, which uses a generation older processor. Latest generation graphics processors were also needed, along with a custom scaler to keep up with this huge screen resolution.

The clear answer is that the Retina iMac is unquestionably the best still image edting system available, and a steal at the price. After all, it’s possible to spend more for a single 4K display then the entire cost of a Retina iMac. Those who are running three or more 4K displays, and rendering large amounts of video while doing other work on their computers will still want the MacPro; though one could make a case for them also needing a Retina iMac as a second machine.

For the rest of us the Retina iMac is the right answer for photo, time lapse, and for HD or moderate amounts of 4K Video. But if this is clearly the best option for photographers, what configuration is best? Here the answer depends on your budget and your needs.

Configuration Options, in approximate order:

• Base configuration: fine for casual photo work
• First upgrade: add more memory (RAM)
• Second upgrade: processer speed upgrade
• Third upgrade: larger Fusion (composite Flash and Disk) Drive
• Forth upgrade: external drive array, and Flash instead of Fusion internal drive
• Fifth upgrade: Thunderbolt 2 external arrays, mostly for heavy video work
• Other Upgrade Option: A second display. No clear location in the list above.

There are a few other specifications for the Retina iMac display that photographers need to consider before making the investment in one of these machines.

First is uniformity. Low cost screens tend to be much brighter in the center than at the corners, and white LED edge-light displays, of the type Apple users, are prone to quite a bit of uniformity variation. The Retina iMac screen keeps brightness variations to about 10% total, which is about as accurate as large, white edge-lit displays can be. For more uniformity than that, it’s necessary to move to a more expensive backlight type.

Screen reflectivity is the next factor. Displays used to have a matte surface finish to blur reflections, making them less distracting. Many graphics displays still use this strategy, though the coatings have become much finer grained, to allow the higher resolutions of modern screens to show through. Matting the surface has the disadvantages of reducing the viewable dynamic range, making the screen less vibrant. Apple was a pioneer in the use of glossy glass screens on modern LCD displays. Graphics users objected, but as improvements reduced reflection on the gloss screens, though bonding screen elements together to reduce air layers and secondary reflections, and by applying special anti-reflection coatings to the surface of the screen, gloss screens now offer serious advantages over matte finishes.

Color Gamut is the final concern. Just because a feature is marketed doesn’t make it important. Don’t assume that the wide-gamut of high-end displays is their most important feature.

The comparison is interesting. Those who have worked with good quality sRGB and AdobeRGB displays may find that the difference in gamut is less of an issue than other factors, most typically resolution. When using a larger or higher resolution sRGB display, and a smaller or lower resolution AdobeRGB display, many find themselves editing exclusively on the screen with more pixels, and, perhaps, moving images to the wide gamut screen for occasional color checks in the saturated Yellows, Greens, and Cyans. So the Retina iMac’s sRGB-sized gamut might not be a show-stopper for many photographers.

Stay Tuned for Part Two of this series, which will cover, with illustrations, the color accuracy of the Retina iMac display; specifically its gray balance, gamma smoothness and accuracy, whitepoint accuracy, and color gamut. As you will see, it does benefit from calibration.

C. David Tobie

Image Capture and Screenshots with the Apple Watch

The title of this article is a bit redundant; there is only one way to capture an image with the Apple Watch: by taking a screenshot. This choice seems odd to those thinking in terms of a Dick Tracey spy-watch, but in fact it is quite brilliant, given the adverse reaction to Google Glass and its privacy invasive photo and video functions, to create a Wearable device that is totally free of image capture functions. It also makes sense for a number of other reasons; the wrist is a natural spot for a watch, but not a flexible location for aiming at things you might want to photograph.

This does not mean that the Apple Watch is not a useful photo accessory, but the emphasis is on accessory. Its initial function is as a remote trigger, allowing you to put your phone in an awkward location, or in a spot far enough away from you to lure animals in for a close-up, or in front of you for a less cramped version of the group selfie, and then trigger the phone’s camera with your watch. As third party apps become more powerful, other photo functions are inevitable.

But internal image capture with the Apple Watch is restricted to screenshots, and we tend to think of screenshots as something only reviewers and how-to authors use. In fact, there are many end-user justifications for screenshots. These include capturing a sketch someone sends from their Watch to yours, or an image that you have on your Watch, but not on your phone, and want to forward to someone, or basically having a visual record of anything that may pop up on the watch face.

There are a few details to be aware of when dealing with images on the  Apple Watch. First, to maximize screen real estate on such a tiny screen, the non-screen border is used to create the outside edges of the watch layout. But screenshots will only capture the “live” section, and will not include this black border, resulting in shots of black background apps (and virtually all apps should be black background on the Apple Watch), that will look tight and poorly laid out in the screen capture. In some cases you may want to place a larger black background (or Canvas, if you are working in Photoshop) behind your shots to restore the elegance that they show on the Watch itself.

Next is the issue of image orientation, proportions, and borders. All images moved to your Watch will be in portrait orientation (so it is best to focus on portrait images when choosing images to store on the Watch), and at the Watches 4:5 screen ratio. This means borders from landscape images, such as the one shown below, will be clipped on the edges, but retained at top and bottom, which is less than ideal. Best to crop borders from images before selecting them for storage on the Watch.

Image Captured from the Photos App on my Apple Watch

Image Captured from the Photos App on my Apple Watch

Triggering a screenshot on the Apple Watch is as simple as pressing both buttons at once, similar to the “two button” approach on iPhones and iPads. The only difference is that the two buttons are side by side, so require a thumb on the opposing side of the Watch to squeeze against them, assuring that this is not an action that is likely to occur by accident.

The remaining mystery has to do with where the Watch shots go, after the familiar camera sound and screen flash occurs. They do not show up in the Photos app on the Watch, which is certainly the first place most people would look for them. Instead they are saved in a much more useful location: the Camera Roll on your iPhone. There are many more things you can do with them from here, so once this method is understood, it makes a great deal of sense.

So enjoy creating Apple Watch screenshots, and try to not post your daily activity graph to Facebook too often.

Yesterday's Activity Graph from my Apple Watch. Yes, I did manage to sneak this in...

Yesterday’s Activity Graph from my Apple Watch. Yes, I did manage to sneak this in…

C. David Tobie

Disabling Apple’s Photos App Auto-Launch When Connecting a Phone

Having applications intelligently auto-launch is only helpful if you plan to use the application for that function. Since most advanced photographers use Adobe Lightroom to import and manage their images, having an Apple application offer to import your images is redundant, and can cause multiple copies of images to be stored on your hard drive. Apple’s previous iPhoto app could be set to not auto-launch when your iPhone or iPad was attached to the computer through settings in iPhoto’s preferences. The new Photos app that has replaced iPhoto no longer lists that option, leaving photographers puzzled about how to eliminate this undesired auto-launch.

The answer lies with a seldom-mentioned Apple utility named Image Capture. Launch Image Capture from the Applications Folder (despite it’s Utility-like nature, its not in the Utilities subfolder), and look in the lower left corner.

Clicking on the tiny arrow at the bottom left will open up an option for deciding what application to trigger when your device is connected. Choosing “No Application” will solve the issue. You will need to do this for other phones and tablets you connect to your computer, on a per-device basis.

C. David Tobie

Observations About the Upcoming MacPro

It’s Not Unexpected

A week before the announcement of the new MacPro I had dinner with a videographer who was quite passionate about his need for a new MacPro, and what he needed it to contain. I warned him that the next generation would most likely not have a standard tower size or configuration, would likely offer Thunderbolt 2 as the expansion solution, instead of internal options, and would have excellent native  graphics capabilities, though it might be some time before third party graphics options would be available. This was all clear from the general direction Apple has been moving in, and from the areas they have been showing interest in. That forms a fairly good description of the new MacPro in advance. And having that sense of the device has allowed me to think less about the tech specs, and more about the concepts and applications of the machine, now that it has been announced.

Courtesy of Apple Inc.

Courtesy of Apple Inc.

Who is it For?

Without belaboring the specs, the key take away is that this is a fast graphics machine. Still photography long ago ceased being the standard by which computers were tested. 3D rendering and video tasks have taken over as the heavy lifting tests. And this machine is all about fast memory, fast internal storage (I hesitate to call it a drive) and fast communications protocols to external devices. Which pretty much describes video editing. Not that it won’t be great for many other uses, but anything you can do conveniently, without delays and slowdowns, on the latest iMac, is not a candidate for the (as yet undefined) much higher price tag of the upcoming MacPro. Photographers working with huge layered files or composites, those wishing to work with multiple HD (and 4K) screens, and those wishing to access large numbers of images quickly, may find justification, but basic photo editing won’t really need the capabilities of this machine.

Screen Shot 2013-06-15 at 5.02.25 PM

Courtesy of Apple Inc.

Why is it Groundbreaking?

Apple’s key advantage over other companies in the industry is the ability to customize and integrate all components of software, hardware and communications. Here, this takes the form of integrating all the high powered, heat creating chips into a unified core. This allows better heat transfer, which should have implications for longer life, improved performance, and with the custom cooling system, lower noise. All in an elegant little package.

Courtesy of Apple Inc.

Courtesy of Apple Inc.

Why is it Risky?

Another  unique decision was forcing all other high speed functions to Thunderbolt 2. This is an external data transfer system so fast it vies with the fastest internal data protocols, with the added flexibility of not having the components be internal. This allows the device to be small, and the expansion to be totally fluid, as it does not need to fit specific expansion bay sizes and numbers. The risks of this forward-thinking strategy include the current lack of Thunderbolt 2 accessories, the long lag time it took before Thunderbolt 1 accessories trickled onto the market, the premium cost of Thunderbolt devices, the small market size (which may not lure as many third parties to produce such accessories) and the need for companies accustomed to creating only internal products, such as video cards, to create external products. Which leaves those companies responsible for their own heat dissipation schemes for those external enclosures as well.

Courtesy of Apple Inc.

Courtesy of Apple Inc.

Conceptual Design

Good design consists of determining what the key aspects of a project are (selecting too many dilutes them all), and how best to express those elements. In the case of the new MacPro, Apple has emphasized speed, centralized cooling, reduced size, and the external nature of everything else. This is a legitimate design list, and rethinking the computer’s size, shape, and other factors based on this short list is excellent design. Whether it is excellent marketing is yet to be seen.  

Credits: C. David Tobie, Copyright 2013. Website: CDTobie.com Return to Blog’s Main Page